Vectorised Algorithms in Java

There has been a Cambrian explosion of JVM data technologies in recent years. It’s all very exciting, but is the JVM really competitive with C in this area? I would argue that there is a reason Apache Arrow is polyglot, and it’s not just interoperability with Python. To pick on one project impressive enough to be thriving after seven years, if you’ve actually used Apache Spark you will be aware that it looks fastest next to its predecessor, MapReduce. Big data is a lot like teenage sex: everybody talks about it, nobody really knows how to do it, and everyone keeps their embarrassing stories to themselves. In games of incomplete information, it’s possible to overestimate the competence of others: nobody opens up about how slow their Spark jobs really are because there’s a risk of looking stupid.

If it can be accepted that Spark is inefficient, the question becomes is Spark fundamentally inefficient? Flare provides a drop-in replacement for Spark’s backend, but replaces JIT compiled code with highly efficient native code, yielding order of magnitude improvements in job throughput. Some of Flare’s gains come from generating specialised code, but the rest comes from just generating better native code than C2 does. If Flare validates Spark’s execution model, perhaps it raises questions about the suitability of the JVM for high throughput data processing.

I think this will change radically in the coming years. I think the most important reason is the advent of explicit support for SIMD provided by the vector API, which is currently incubating in Project Panama. Once the vector API is complete, I conjecture that projects like Spark will be able to profit enormously from it. This post takes a look at the API in its current state and ignores performance.

Why Vectorisation?

Assuming a flat processor frequency, throughput is improved by a combination of executing many instructions per cycle (pipelining) and processing multiple data items per instruction (SIMD). SIMD instruction sets are provided by Intel as the various generations of SSE and AVX. If throughput is the only goal, maximising SIMD may even be worth reducing the frequency, which can happen on Intel chips when using AVX. Vectorisation allows throughput to be increased by the use of SIMD instructions.

Analytical workloads are particularly suitable for vectorisation, especially over columnar data, because they typically involve operations consuming the entire range of a few numerical attributes of a data set. Vectorised analytical processing with filters is explicitly supported by vector masks, and vectorisation is also profitable for operations on indices typically performed for filtering prior to calculations. I don’t actually need to make a strong case for the impact of vectorisation on analytical workloads: just read the work of top researchers like Daniel Abadi and Daniel Lemire.

Vectorisation in the JVM

C2 provides quite a lot of autovectorisation, which works very well sometimes, but the support is limited and brittle. I have written about this several times. Because AVX can reduce the processor frequency, it’s not always profitable to vectorise, so compilers employ cost models to decide when they should do so. Such cost models require platform specific calibration, and sometimes C2 can get it wrong. Sometimes, specifically in the case of floating point operations, using SIMD conflicts with the JLS, and the code C2 generates can be quite inefficient. In general, data parallel code can be better optimised by C compilers, such as GCC, than C2 because there are fewer constraints, and there is a larger budget for analysis at compile time. This all makes having intrinsics very appealing, and as a user I would like to be able to:

  1. Bypass JLS floating point constraints.
  2. Bypass cost model based decisions.
  3. Avoid JNI at all costs.
  4. Use a modern “object-functional” style. SIMD intrinsics in C are painful.

There is another attempt to provide SIMD intrinsics to JVM users via LMS, a framework for writing programs which write programs, designed by Tiark Rompf (who is also behind Flare). This work is very promising (I have written about it before), but it uses JNI. It’s only at the prototype stage, but currently the intrinsics are auto-generated from XML definitions, which leads to a one-to-one mapping to the intrinsics in immintrin.h, yielding a similar programming experience. This could likely be improved a lot, but the reliance on JNI is fundamental, albeit with minimal boundary crossing.

I am quite excited by the vector API in Project Panama because it looks like it will meet all of these requirements, at least to some extent. It remains to be seen quite how far the implementors will go in the direction of associative floating point arithmetic, but it has to opt out of JLS floating point semantics to some extent, which I think is progressive.

The Vector API

Disclaimer: Everything below is based on my experience with a recent build of the experimental code in the Project Panama fork of OpenJDK. I am not affiliated with the design or implementation of this API, may not be using it properly, and it may change according to its designers’ will before it is released!

To understand the vector API you need to know that there are different register widths and different SIMD instruction sets. Because of my area of work, and 99% of the server market is Intel, I am only interested in AVX, but ARM have their own implementations with different maximum register sizes, which presumably need to be handled by a JVM vector API. On Intel CPUs, SSE instruction sets use up to 128 bit registers (xmm, four ints), AVX and AVX2 use up to 256 bit registers (ymm, eight ints), and AVX512 use up to 512 bit registers (zmm, sixteen ints).

The instruction sets are typed, and instructions designed to operate on packed doubles can’t operate on packed ints without explicit casting. This is modeled by the interface Vector<Shape>, parametrised by the Shape interface which models the register width.

The types of the vector elements is modeled by abstract element type specific classes such as IntVector. At the leaves of the hierarchy are the concrete classes specialised both to element type and register width, such as IntVector256 which extends IntVector<Shapes.S256Bit>.

Since EJB, the word factory has been a dirty word, which might be why the word species is used in this API. To create a IntVector<Shapes.S256Bit>, you can create the factory/species as follows:

public static final IntVector.IntSpecies<Shapes.S256Bit> YMM_INT = 
          (IntVector.IntSpecies<Shapes.S256Bit>) Vector.species(int.class, Shapes.S_256_BIT);

There are now various ways to create a vector from the species, which all have their use cases. First, you can load vectors from arrays: imagine you want to calculate the bitwise intersection of two int[]s. This can be written quite cleanly, without any shape/register information.

public static int[] intersect(int[] left, int[] right) {
    assert left.length == right.length;
    int[] result = new int[left.length];
    for (int i = 0; i < left.length; i += YMM_INT.length()) {
      YMM_INT.fromArray(left, i)
             .and(YMM_INT.fromArray(right, i))
             .intoArray(result, i);

A common pattern in vectorised code is to broadcast a variable into a vector, for instance, to facilitate the multiplication of a vector by a scalar.

IntVector<Shapes.S256Bit> multiplier = YMM_INT.broadcast(x);

Or to create a vector from some scalars, for instance in a lookup table.

IntVector<Shapes.S256Bit> vector = YMM_INT.scalars(0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7);

A zero vector can be created from a species:

IntVector<Shapes.S256Bit> zero =;

The big split in the class hierarchy is between integral and floating point types. Integral types have meaningful bitwise operations (I am looking forward to trying to write a vectorised population count algorithm), which are absent from FloatVector and DoubleVector, and there is no concept of fused-multiply-add for integral types, so there is obviously no IntVector.fma. The common subset of operations is arithmetic, casting and loading/storing operations.

I generally like the API a lot: it feels familiar to programming with streams, but on the other hand, it isn’t too far removed from traditional intrinsics. Below is an implementation of a fast matrix multiplication written in C, and below it is the same code written with the vector API:

static void mmul_tiled_avx_unrolled(const int n, const float *left, const float *right, float *result) {
    const int block_width = n >= 256 ? 512 : 256;
    const int block_height = n >= 512 ? 8 : n >= 256 ? 16 : 32;
    for (int column_offset = 0; column_offset < n; column_offset += block_width) {
        for (int row_offset = 0; row_offset < n; row_offset += block_height) {
            for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
                for (int j = column_offset; j < column_offset + block_width && j < n; j += 64) {
                    __m256 sum1 = _mm256_load_ps(result + i * n + j);
                    __m256 sum2 = _mm256_load_ps(result + i * n + j + 8);
                    __m256 sum3 = _mm256_load_ps(result + i * n + j + 16);
                    __m256 sum4 = _mm256_load_ps(result + i * n + j + 24);
                    __m256 sum5 = _mm256_load_ps(result + i * n + j + 32);
                    __m256 sum6 = _mm256_load_ps(result + i * n + j + 40);
                    __m256 sum7 = _mm256_load_ps(result + i * n + j + 48);
                    __m256 sum8 = _mm256_load_ps(result + i * n + j + 56);
                    for (int k = row_offset; k < row_offset + block_height && k < n; ++k) {
                        __m256 multiplier = _mm256_set1_ps(left[i * n + k]);
                        sum1 = _mm256_fmadd_ps(multiplier, _mm256_load_ps(right + k * n + j), sum1);
                        sum2 = _mm256_fmadd_ps(multiplier, _mm256_load_ps(right + k * n + j + 8), sum2);
                        sum3 = _mm256_fmadd_ps(multiplier, _mm256_load_ps(right + k * n + j + 16), sum3);
                        sum4 = _mm256_fmadd_ps(multiplier, _mm256_load_ps(right + k * n + j + 24), sum4);
                        sum5 = _mm256_fmadd_ps(multiplier, _mm256_load_ps(right + k * n + j + 32), sum5);
                        sum6 = _mm256_fmadd_ps(multiplier, _mm256_load_ps(right + k * n + j + 40), sum6);
                        sum7 = _mm256_fmadd_ps(multiplier, _mm256_load_ps(right + k * n + j + 48), sum7);
                        sum8 = _mm256_fmadd_ps(multiplier, _mm256_load_ps(right + k * n + j + 56), sum8);
                    _mm256_store_ps(result + i * n + j, sum1);
                    _mm256_store_ps(result + i * n + j + 8, sum2);
                    _mm256_store_ps(result + i * n + j + 16, sum3);
                    _mm256_store_ps(result + i * n + j + 24, sum4);
                    _mm256_store_ps(result + i * n + j + 32, sum5);
                    _mm256_store_ps(result + i * n + j + 40, sum6);
                    _mm256_store_ps(result + i * n + j + 48, sum7);
                    _mm256_store_ps(result + i * n + j + 56, sum8);

  private static void mmul(int n, float[] left, float[] right, float[] result) {
    int blockWidth = n >= 256 ? 512 : 256;
    int blockHeight = n >= 512 ? 8 : n >= 256 ? 16 : 32;
    for (int columnOffset = 0; columnOffset < n; columnOffset += blockWidth) {
      for (int rowOffset = 0; rowOffset < n; rowOffset += blockHeight) {
        for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
          for (int j = columnOffset; j < columnOffset + blockWidth && j < n; j += 64) {
            var sum1 = YMM_FLOAT.fromArray(result, i * n + j);
            var sum2 = YMM_FLOAT.fromArray(result, i * n + j + 8);
            var sum3 = YMM_FLOAT.fromArray(result, i * n + j + 16);
            var sum4 = YMM_FLOAT.fromArray(result, i * n + j + 24);
            var sum5 = YMM_FLOAT.fromArray(result, i * n + j + 32);
            var sum6 = YMM_FLOAT.fromArray(result, i * n + j + 40);
            var sum7 = YMM_FLOAT.fromArray(result, i * n + j + 48);
            var sum8 = YMM_FLOAT.fromArray(result, i * n + j + 56);
            for (int k = rowOffset; k < rowOffset + blockHeight && k < n; ++k) {
              var multiplier = YMM_FLOAT.broadcast(left[i * n + k]);
              sum1 = sum1.fma(multiplier, YMM_FLOAT.fromArray(right, k * n + j));
              sum2 = sum2.fma(multiplier, YMM_FLOAT.fromArray(right, k * n + j + 8));
              sum3 = sum3.fma(multiplier, YMM_FLOAT.fromArray(right, k * n + j + 16));
              sum4 = sum4.fma(multiplier, YMM_FLOAT.fromArray(right, k * n + j + 24));
              sum5 = sum5.fma(multiplier, YMM_FLOAT.fromArray(right, k * n + j + 32));
              sum6 = sum6.fma(multiplier, YMM_FLOAT.fromArray(right, k * n + j + 40));
              sum7 = sum7.fma(multiplier, YMM_FLOAT.fromArray(right, k * n + j + 48));
              sum8 = sum8.fma(multiplier, YMM_FLOAT.fromArray(right, k * n + j + 56));
            sum1.intoArray(result, i * n + j);
            sum2.intoArray(result, i * n + j + 8);
            sum3.intoArray(result, i * n + j + 16);
            sum4.intoArray(result, i * n + j + 24);
            sum5.intoArray(result, i * n + j + 32);
            sum6.intoArray(result, i * n + j + 40);
            sum7.intoArray(result, i * n + j + 48);
            sum8.intoArray(result, i * n + j + 56);

They just aren’t that different, and it’s easy to translate between the two. I wouldn’t expect it to be fast yet though. I have no idea what the scope of work involved in implementing all of the C2 intrinsics to make this possible is, but I assume it’s vast. The class jdk.incubator.vector.VectorIntrinsics seems to contain all of the intrinsics implemented so far, and it doesn’t contain every operation used in my array multiplication code. There is also the question of value types and vector box elimination. I will probably look at this again in the future when more of the JIT compiler work has been done, but I’m starting to get very excited about the possibility of much faster JVM based data processing.

Collecting Rocks and Benchmarks

As long as I can remember, I have been interested in rocks, I have hundreds of them in storage. Rocks are interesting because they hold little clues about processes nobody has ever seen happen. For instance, one of the first rocks I ever took an interest in was a smooth granite pebble, which I collected on a walk when I was six. Let’s be honest, as a six year old, it was the pattern on the surface of the rock that caught my eye, but this truly was a fascinating rock because it shouldn’t have been smooth and it shouldn’t have been in England. It probably came from Norway, and while it’s possible that a Norwegian brought the rock to England, it’s highly unlikely.

The best possible explanation of the rock’s existence in that point in space and time was that there was once a glacier covering Norway, the North Sea, and Northern England, moving in that direction. The glacier carried the pebble, and many others like it, and dumped it as glacial outwash in the English Midlands. Nobody alive saw this happen, but if this happened, Scotland (relieved of the weight of an ice sheet) should still be rising in altitude, and there should be clay in the Midlands but not in the South. It’s likely that there was an ice age, not just because I found a granite pebble, but because Scotland is rising, and the English Midlands are covered in clay. You may lack the tools, funds, or time to do so, but you can apply this process to virtually anything to figure out how something happened or works.

If you’re an application developer, as I am, it’s highly unlikely that you wrote the platform you use, so you probably don’t really understand it. The vast majority of the platform you use was written by other people over what might as well be geological timescales. Benchmarks are a lot like rocks in that they can reveal implementation details you aren’t otherwise party to, and, with the right trade offs, you may be able to harness these in your applications. Collecting rocks doesn’t make a geologist, and I think you need to be quite inquisitive for benchmarking to work out, because you need to seek corroborating evidence: just as the presence of a pebble is scant support for an ice age, a single benchmark score doesn’t say much about anything.

If you’re interested in the JVM, I think instruction profiling is essential because it gives so much away. For instance, you may not appreciate the significance of choice of garbage collector, but you’ll see lots of strange instructions in some benchmarks if you profile them, and you may have the curiosity to ask what they do and what put them there. If you don’t do it, you won’t really know the boundaries of validity of whatever your observation is. You could find that changing your garbage collector invalidates your findings.

Partly because I want the information on this site to be basically correct, but also to illustrate how conclusions can be jumped to because a benchmark score confirms a personal bias, I’ll look again at a couple of very superficial benchmarks I wrote about last year, to do with polynomial hash codes. The measurements were probably fine, but I didn’t really get to the bottom of the issue and I could easily have found a faster implementation if I had looked a bit harder.

Polynomial Hash Codes

The Java String.hashCode and Arrays.hashCode methods are implemented as the dot product of the data and a vector of powers of 31.

    public static int hashCode(int a[]) {
        if (a == null)
            return 0;

        int result = 1;
        for (int element : a)
            result = 31 * result + element;

        return result;

Since String caches its hash code, you’d be hard pressed to make use of the following optimisations, but I found I learned something about what C2 does and doesn’t do by attempting to optimise it. First of all, what does the built in hash code actually do? You can only really find out with instruction profiling, which you can enable in JMH with -prof perfasm on Linux or -prof xperfasm on Windows.

The bulk of the sampled instructions are in this block below:

           0x000002720f204af2: add     edi,dword ptr [rax+rbx*4+10h]
  2.37%    0x000002720f204af6: mov     r10d,edi
  1.72%    0x000002720f204af9: shl     r10d,5h
  2.06%    0x000002720f204afd: sub     r10d,edi
  3.77%    0x000002720f204b00: add     r10d,dword ptr [rax+rbx*4+14h]
  3.93%    0x000002720f204b05: mov     r8d,r10d
  0.01%    0x000002720f204b08: shl     r8d,5h
  3.80%    0x000002720f204b0c: sub     r8d,r10d
  3.98%    0x000002720f204b0f: add     r8d,dword ptr [rax+rbx*4+18h]
  4.12%    0x000002720f204b14: mov     r10d,r8d
           0x000002720f204b17: shl     r10d,5h
  3.78%    0x000002720f204b1b: sub     r10d,r8d
  3.75%    0x000002720f204b1e: add     r10d,dword ptr [rax+rbx*4+1ch]
  3.81%    0x000002720f204b23: mov     r8d,r10d
           0x000002720f204b26: shl     r8d,5h
  4.04%    0x000002720f204b2a: sub     r8d,r10d
  4.15%    0x000002720f204b2d: add     r8d,dword ptr [rax+rbx*4+20h]
  3.98%    0x000002720f204b32: mov     r10d,r8d
           0x000002720f204b35: shl     r10d,5h
  4.27%    0x000002720f204b39: sub     r10d,r8d
  3.95%    0x000002720f204b3c: add     r10d,dword ptr [rax+rbx*4+24h]
  3.77%    0x000002720f204b41: mov     r8d,r10d
           0x000002720f204b44: shl     r8d,5h
  4.01%    0x000002720f204b48: sub     r8d,r10d
  4.02%    0x000002720f204b4b: add     r8d,dword ptr [rax+rbx*4+28h]
  4.11%    0x000002720f204b50: mov     ecx,r8d
           0x000002720f204b53: shl     ecx,5h
  4.08%    0x000002720f204b56: sub     ecx,r8d
  4.31%    0x000002720f204b59: add     ecx,dword ptr [rax+rbx*4+2ch]

The first thing to ask is where is the multiplication? There is no multiplication, it’s been replaced by a left shift and a subtraction.

    public int StrengthReduction() {
        int result = 1;
        for (int i = 0; i < data.length; ++i) {
            result = (result << 5) - result + data[i];
        return result;

This is the compiler trying to be helpful because shifts and subtractions are cheaper than multiplications, and for 31, this transformation is possible. The snippet is one long chain of instructions: notice the register dependencies in the assembly snippet:

  4.15%    0x000002720f204b2d: add     r8d,dword ptr [rax+rbx*4+20h]
  3.98%    0x000002720f204b32: mov     r10d,r8d
           0x000002720f204b35: shl     r10d,5h
  4.27%    0x000002720f204b39: sub     r10d,r8d

The addition must complete before the contents of r8d are available for the move, the left shift waits for the move, and the subtraction waits for the shift. No two elements of the array are ever processed simultaneously. First suggested by Peter Levart, I came across it on Daniel Lemire’s blog, the dependency can be broken by manually unrolling the loop:

    public int Unrolled() {
        if (data == null)
            return 0;

        int result = 1;
        int i = 0;
        for (; i + 7 < data.length; i += 8) {
            result = 31 * 31 * 31 * 31 * 31 * 31 * 31 * 31 * result
                   + 31 * 31 * 31 * 31 * 31 * 31 * 31 * data[i]
                   + 31 * 31 * 31 * 31 * 31 * 31 * data[i + 1]
                   + 31 * 31 * 31 * 31 * 31 * data[i + 2]
                   + 31 * 31 * 31 * 31 * data[i + 3]
                   + 31 * 31 * 31 * data[i + 4]
                   + 31 * 31 * data[i + 5]
                   + 31 * data[i + 6]
                   + data[i + 7]
        for (; i < data.length; i++) {
            result = 31 * result + data[i];
        return result;

Weirdly, this implementation does very well (this isn’t new: there has been a ticket for it for several years). Without even bothering with a throughput score (the money shot comes at the end), the profiling output shows that this must be much better. The assembly is quite hard to read because it’s full of tricks I didn’t know existed, but look out for the hexadecimal constants and convince yourself that several are simply powers of 31. The multiplication by 31 is strength reduced to a left shift and a subtraction again.

  0.26%    0x000001d67bdd3c8e: mov     r8d,94446f01h
  0.01%    0x000001d67bdd3c94: jmp     1d67bdd3cb1h
           0x000001d67bdd3c96: nop     word ptr [rax+rax+0h]
           0x000001d67bdd3ca0: mov     edi,r11d
  0.03%    0x000001d67bdd3ca3: vmovq   r14,xmm0
  0.42%    0x000001d67bdd3ca8: mov     ebp,dword ptr [rsp+70h]
  7.14%    0x000001d67bdd3cac: vmovq   rbx,xmm1          
  0.01%    0x000001d67bdd3cb1: cmp     edi,r9d
           0x000001d67bdd3cb4: jnb     1d67bdd3d6ch
  0.04%    0x000001d67bdd3cba: imul    r10d,dword ptr [rcx+rdi*4+10h],67e12cdfh ; Another strength reduction trick
  7.74%    0x000001d67bdd3cc3: add     r10d,r8d                                 ; 1742810335 * x + 2487512833
  2.69%    0x000001d67bdd3cc6: mov     r11d,edi                                 
  0.09%    0x000001d67bdd3cc9: add     r11d,7h                                  
  0.46%    0x000001d67bdd3ccd: cmp     r11d,r9d                             
           0x000001d67bdd3cd0: jnb     1d67bdd3dbah
  6.82%    0x000001d67bdd3cd6: vmovq   xmm1,rbx
  0.61%    0x000001d67bdd3cdb: mov     dword ptr [rsp+70h],ebp
  0.06%    0x000001d67bdd3cdf: vmovq   xmm0,r14          
  0.46%    0x000001d67bdd3ce4: mov     r14,qword ptr [r15+70h]
  6.60%    0x000001d67bdd3ce8: mov     r11d,edi
  0.67%    0x000001d67bdd3ceb: add     r11d,8h 
  0.04%    0x000001d67bdd3cef: movsxd  rax,edi
  0.41%    0x000001d67bdd3cf2: add     edi,0fh
  6.87%    0x000001d67bdd3cf5: mov     edx,dword ptr [rcx+rax*4+28h]
  0.68%    0x000001d67bdd3cf9: imul    r8d,dword ptr [rcx+rax*4+14h],34e63b41h ; multiply by 887503681
  0.67%    0x000001d67bdd3d02: add     r8d,r10d   ; --------------------------
  7.30%    0x000001d67bdd3d05: mov     r10d,edx   ; Multiply by 31
  0.63%    0x000001d67bdd3d08: shl     r10d,5h    ;
  0.08%    0x000001d67bdd3d0c: sub     r10d,edx   ; --------------------------
  0.73%    0x000001d67bdd3d0f: imul    edx,dword ptr [rcx+rax*4+24h],3c1h     ; multiply by 961
  7.47%    0x000001d67bdd3d17: imul    ebp,dword ptr [rcx+rax*4+20h],745fh    ; multiply by 29791 
  0.56%    0x000001d67bdd3d1f: imul    esi,dword ptr [rcx+rax*4+1ch],0e1781h  ; multiply by 923521 
  7.02%    0x000001d67bdd3d27: imul    ebx,dword ptr [rcx+rax*4+18h],1b4d89fh ; multiply by 28629151 
  0.57%    0x000001d67bdd3d2f: add     r8d,ebx
  6.99%    0x000001d67bdd3d32: add     r8d,esi
  0.66%    0x000001d67bdd3d35: add     r8d,ebp
  0.14%    0x000001d67bdd3d38: add     r8d,edx
  0.91%    0x000001d67bdd3d3b: add     r8d,r10d
  7.04%    0x000001d67bdd3d3e: add     r8d,dword ptr [rcx+rax*4+2ch] ; add the data value at offset 7
  1.73%    0x000001d67bdd3d43: test    dword ptr [r14],eax  
  0.06%    0x000001d67bdd3d46: cmp     edi,r9d
           0x000001d67bdd3d49: jnl     1d67bdd3c15h      
  0.45%    0x000001d67bdd3d4f: imul    r8d,r8d,94446f01h ; multiply by 2487512833 (coprime to 31, follow r8d backwards)
 11.90%    0x000001d67bdd3d56: cmp     r11d,r9d

It’s probably not worth deciphering all the tricks in the code above, but notice that there is a lot of parallelism: the chain of signed multiplications target different registers and are independent. This code is much faster.

I wrote the code below in July last year to try to parallelise this calculation. At the expense of precomputing the powers of 31 up to some fixed length, such as the maximum length of strings in your database, it’s quite fast.

    private final int[] coefficients;

    public FixedLengthHashCode(int maxLength) {
        this.coefficients = new int[maxLength + 1];
        coefficients[0] = 1;
        for (int i = 1; i <= maxLength; ++i) {
            coefficients[i] = 31 * coefficients[i - 1];

    public int hashCode(int[] value) {
        final int max = value.length;
        int result = coefficients[max];
        for (int i = 0; i < value.length && i < coefficients.length - 1; ++i) {
            result += coefficients[max - i - 1] * value[i];
        return result;

I was non-commital in the original post but I sort-of claimed this code was vectorised without even bothering to look at the disassembly. It’s scalar, but it’s much more parallel than the unrolled version, and all the clever strength reductions and dependencies are gone.

  0.15%    0x0000022d8e6825e0: movsxd  rbx,ecx
  0.07%    0x0000022d8e6825e3: mov     rdx,rsi
  3.57%    0x0000022d8e6825e6: sub     rdx,rbx
  0.08%    0x0000022d8e6825e9: mov     r10d,dword ptr [r9+rbx*4+10h]
  0.18%    0x0000022d8e6825ee: imul    r10d,dword ptr [rdi+rdx*4+0ch]
  0.15%    0x0000022d8e6825f4: add     r10d,r8d
  4.25%    0x0000022d8e6825f7: mov     r11d,dword ptr [r9+rbx*4+14h]
  0.14%    0x0000022d8e6825fc: imul    r11d,dword ptr [rdi+rdx*4+8h]
  0.19%    0x0000022d8e682602: add     r11d,r10d
  1.31%    0x0000022d8e682605: mov     r10d,dword ptr [r9+rbx*4+18h]
  3.93%    0x0000022d8e68260a: imul    r10d,dword ptr [rdi+rdx*4+4h]
  0.22%    0x0000022d8e682610: add     r10d,r11d
  0.94%    0x0000022d8e682613: mov     r8d,dword ptr [r9+rbx*4+1ch]
  0.05%    0x0000022d8e682618: imul    r8d,dword ptr [rdi+rdx*4]
  3.68%    0x0000022d8e68261d: add     r8d,r10d
  1.02%    0x0000022d8e682620: mov     r10d,dword ptr [r9+rbx*4+20h]
  0.19%    0x0000022d8e682625: imul    r10d,dword ptr [rdi+rdx*4+0fffffffffffffffch]
  0.61%    0x0000022d8e68262b: add     r10d,r8d
  4.71%    0x0000022d8e68262e: mov     r11d,dword ptr [r9+rbx*4+24h]
  0.08%    0x0000022d8e682633: imul    r11d,dword ptr [rdi+rdx*4+0fffffffffffffff8h]
  0.82%    0x0000022d8e682639: add     r11d,r10d
  5.57%    0x0000022d8e68263c: mov     r10d,dword ptr [r9+rbx*4+28h]
  0.04%    0x0000022d8e682641: imul    r10d,dword ptr [rdi+rdx*4+0fffffffffffffff4h]
  0.68%    0x0000022d8e682647: add     r10d,r11d
  4.67%    0x0000022d8e68264a: mov     r11d,dword ptr [r9+rbx*4+2ch]
  0.08%    0x0000022d8e68264f: imul    r11d,dword ptr [rdi+rdx*4+0fffffffffffffff0h]
  0.45%    0x0000022d8e682655: add     r11d,r10d
  4.50%    0x0000022d8e682658: mov     r10d,dword ptr [r9+rbx*4+30h]
  0.20%    0x0000022d8e68265d: imul    r10d,dword ptr [rdi+rdx*4+0ffffffffffffffech]
  0.37%    0x0000022d8e682663: add     r10d,r11d
  3.82%    0x0000022d8e682666: mov     r8d,dword ptr [r9+rbx*4+34h]
  0.05%    0x0000022d8e68266b: imul    r8d,dword ptr [rdi+rdx*4+0ffffffffffffffe8h]
  0.42%    0x0000022d8e682671: add     r8d,r10d
  4.18%    0x0000022d8e682674: mov     r10d,dword ptr [r9+rbx*4+38h]
  0.02%    0x0000022d8e682679: imul    r10d,dword ptr [rdi+rdx*4+0ffffffffffffffe4h]
  0.25%    0x0000022d8e68267f: add     r10d,r8d
  5.11%    0x0000022d8e682682: mov     r11d,dword ptr [r9+rbx*4+3ch]
  0.03%    0x0000022d8e682687: imul    r11d,dword ptr [rdi+rdx*4+0ffffffffffffffe0h]
  0.28%    0x0000022d8e68268d: add     r11d,r10d
  4.88%    0x0000022d8e682690: mov     r10d,dword ptr [r9+rbx*4+40h]
  0.09%    0x0000022d8e682695: imul    r10d,dword ptr [rdi+rdx*4+0ffffffffffffffdch]
  0.21%    0x0000022d8e68269b: add     r10d,r11d
  4.56%    0x0000022d8e68269e: mov     r8d,dword ptr [r9+rbx*4+44h]
  0.02%    0x0000022d8e6826a3: imul    r8d,dword ptr [rdi+rdx*4+0ffffffffffffffd8h]
  0.18%    0x0000022d8e6826a9: add     r8d,r10d
  4.73%    0x0000022d8e6826ac: mov     r10d,dword ptr [r9+rbx*4+48h]
  0.06%    0x0000022d8e6826b1: imul    r10d,dword ptr [rdi+rdx*4+0ffffffffffffffd4h]
  0.10%    0x0000022d8e6826b7: add     r10d,r8d
  4.12%    0x0000022d8e6826ba: mov     r8d,dword ptr [r9+rbx*4+4ch]

That blog post really was lazy. There’s a bit of a problem with the access pattern because the coefficients are accessed in reverse order, and at an offset: it’s too complicated for the optimiser. The code below is just a dot product and it should come as no surprise that it’s faster.

    private int[] coefficients;
    private int seed;

    void init(int size) {
        coefficients = new int[size]; 
        coefficients[size - 1] = 1;
        for (int i = size - 2; i >= 0; --i) {
            coefficients[i] = 31 * coefficients[i + 1];
        seed = 31 * coefficients[0];

    public int Vectorised() {
        int result = seed;
        for (int i = 0; i < data.length && i < coefficients.length; ++i) {
            result += coefficients[i] * data[i];
        return result;

The code vectorises, but the reduction isn’t as good as it could be with handwritten code.

  0.22%    0x000001d9c2e0f320: vmovdqu ymm0,ymmword ptr [rdi+rsi*4+70h]
  2.31%    0x000001d9c2e0f326: vpmulld ymm0,ymm0,ymmword ptr [r11+rsi*4+70h]
  0.61%    0x000001d9c2e0f32d: vmovdqu ymm1,ymmword ptr [rdi+rsi*4+50h]
  2.61%    0x000001d9c2e0f333: vpmulld ymm9,ymm1,ymmword ptr [r11+rsi*4+50h]
  0.53%    0x000001d9c2e0f33a: vmovdqu ymm1,ymmword ptr [rdi+rsi*4+30h]
  2.07%    0x000001d9c2e0f340: vpmulld ymm10,ymm1,ymmword ptr [r11+rsi*4+30h]
  0.60%    0x000001d9c2e0f347: vmovdqu ymm1,ymmword ptr [rdi+rsi*4+10h]
  2.33%    0x000001d9c2e0f34d: vpmulld ymm11,ymm1,ymmword ptr [r11+rsi*4+10h]
  0.61%    0x000001d9c2e0f354: vphaddd ymm7,ymm11,ymm11
  3.04%    0x000001d9c2e0f359: vphaddd ymm7,ymm7,ymm8
  3.56%    0x000001d9c2e0f35e: vextracti128 xmm8,ymm7,1h
  0.53%    0x000001d9c2e0f364: vpaddd  xmm7,xmm7,xmm8
  1.56%    0x000001d9c2e0f369: vmovd   xmm8,r8d
  1.77%    0x000001d9c2e0f36e: vpaddd  xmm8,xmm8,xmm7
  0.93%    0x000001d9c2e0f372: vmovd   edx,xmm8
  0.27%    0x000001d9c2e0f376: vphaddd ymm2,ymm10,ymm10
  2.75%    0x000001d9c2e0f37b: vphaddd ymm2,ymm2,ymm6
  2.32%    0x000001d9c2e0f380: vextracti128 xmm6,ymm2,1h
  1.95%    0x000001d9c2e0f386: vpaddd  xmm2,xmm2,xmm6
  0.63%    0x000001d9c2e0f38a: vmovd   xmm6,edx
  0.50%    0x000001d9c2e0f38e: vpaddd  xmm6,xmm6,xmm2
  7.76%    0x000001d9c2e0f392: vmovd   edx,xmm6
  0.22%    0x000001d9c2e0f396: vphaddd ymm5,ymm9,ymm9
  2.68%    0x000001d9c2e0f39b: vphaddd ymm5,ymm5,ymm1
  0.34%    0x000001d9c2e0f3a0: vextracti128 xmm1,ymm5,1h
  6.27%    0x000001d9c2e0f3a6: vpaddd  xmm5,xmm5,xmm1
  0.88%    0x000001d9c2e0f3aa: vmovd   xmm1,edx
  0.92%    0x000001d9c2e0f3ae: vpaddd  xmm1,xmm1,xmm5
  7.85%    0x000001d9c2e0f3b2: vmovd   edx,xmm1
  0.43%    0x000001d9c2e0f3b6: vphaddd ymm4,ymm0,ymm0
  2.59%    0x000001d9c2e0f3bb: vphaddd ymm4,ymm4,ymm3
  0.34%    0x000001d9c2e0f3c0: vextracti128 xmm3,ymm4,1h
  5.72%    0x000001d9c2e0f3c6: vpaddd  xmm4,xmm4,xmm3
  0.80%    0x000001d9c2e0f3ca: vmovd   xmm3,edx
  0.58%    0x000001d9c2e0f3ce: vpaddd  xmm3,xmm3,xmm4
  8.09%    0x000001d9c2e0f3d2: vmovd   r8d,xmm3

Using JDK9, this results in a 3x throughput gain over the built in Arrays.hashCode, and that includes the cost of doubling the number of bytes to process and a suboptimal reduction phase. This is going to be a prime candidate for the Vector API, where a vector of powers of 31 could be multiplied by 31^8 on each iteration, before multiplying by a vector of the next 8 data elements.

Benchmark Mode Threads Samples Score Score Error (99.9%) Unit Param: size
BuiltIn thrpt 1 10 3.439980 0.024231 ops/us 256
BuiltIn thrpt 1 10 0.842664 0.009019 ops/us 1024
BuiltIn thrpt 1 10 0.103638 0.003070 ops/us 8192
FixedLength thrpt 1 10 7.421648 0.169558 ops/us 256
FixedLength thrpt 1 10 1.966116 0.044398 ops/us 1024
FixedLength thrpt 1 10 0.249666 0.009994 ops/us 8192
StrengthReduction thrpt 1 10 3.417248 0.045733 ops/us 256
StrengthReduction thrpt 1 10 0.840830 0.011091 ops/us 1024
StrengthReduction thrpt 1 10 0.104265 0.001537 ops/us 8192
Unrolled thrpt 1 10 6.353271 0.042330 ops/us 256
Unrolled thrpt 1 10 1.672845 0.035389 ops/us 1024
Unrolled thrpt 1 10 0.205575 0.009375 ops/us 8192
Vectorised thrpt 1 10 10.958270 0.109993 ops/us 256
Vectorised thrpt 1 10 2.948918 0.081830 ops/us 1024
Vectorised thrpt 1 10 0.358819 0.027316 ops/us 8192

Vectorised Logical Operations in Java 9

This is a short post for my own reference, since I feel I have already done the topic of does Java 9 use AVX for this? to death. Cutting to the chase, Java 9 autovectorises loops to compute logical ANDs, XORs, ORs and ANDNOTs between arrays, making use of the instructions VPXOR, VPOR and VPAND. You can replicate this by running the code at github.


    public long[] xor(LongData state) {
        long[] result = new long[state.data1.length];
        long[] data1 = state.data1;
        long[] data2 = state.data2;
        for (int i = 0; i < data1.length && i < data2.length; ++i) {
            result[i] = data1[i] ^ data2[i];
        return result;

vmovdqu ymm0,ymmword ptr [r10+r13*8+10h]

vpxor   ymm0,ymm0,ymmword ptr [rbx+r13*8+10h]

vmovdqu ymmword ptr [rax+r13*8+10h],ymm0


    public long[] or(LongData state) {
        long[] result = new long[state.data1.length];
        long[] data1 = state.data1;
        long[] data2 = state.data2;
        for (int i = 0; i < data1.length && i < data2.length; ++i) {
            result[i] = data1[i] | data2[i];
        return result;

vmovdqu ymm0,ymmword ptr [r10+rsi*8+30h]
vpor    ymm0,ymm0,ymmword ptr [rbx+rsi*8+30h]

vmovdqu ymmword ptr [rax+rsi*8+30h],ymm0


    public long[] and(LongData state) {
        long[] result = new long[state.data1.length];
        long[] data1 = state.data1;
        long[] data2 = state.data2;
        for (int i = 0; i < data1.length && i < data2.length; ++i) {
            result[i] = data1[i] & data2[i];
        return result;

vmovdqu ymm0,ymmword ptr [r10+r13*8+10h]

vpand   ymm0,ymm0,ymmword ptr [rbx+r13*8+10h]

vmovdqu ymmword ptr [rax+r13*8+10h],ymm0


    public long[] andNot(LongData state) {
        long[] result = new long[state.data1.length];
        long[] data1 = state.data1;
        long[] data2 = state.data2;
        for (int i = 0; i < data1.length && i < data2.length; ++i) {
            result[i] = data1[i] & ~data2[i];
        return result;

vpunpcklqdq xmm0,xmm0,xmm0

vinserti128 ymm0,ymm0,xmm0,1h

vmovdqu ymm1,ymmword ptr [rbx+r13*8+10h]

vpxor   ymm1,ymm1,ymm0

vpand   ymm1,ymm1,ymmword ptr [r10+r13*8+10h]

vmovdqu ymmword ptr [rax+r13*8+10h],ymm1

How much Algebra does C2 Know? Part 2: Distributivity

In part one of this series of posts, I looked at how important associativity and independence are for fast loops. C2 seems to utilise these properties to generate unrolled and pipelined machine code for loops, achieving higher throughput even in cases where the kernel of the loop is 3x slower according to vendor advertised instruction throughputs. C2 has a weird and wonderful relationship with distributivity, and hints from the programmer can both and help hinder the generation of good quality machine code.

Viability and Correctness

Distributivity is the simple notion of factoring out brackets. Is this, in general, a viable loop rewrite strategy? This can be utilised to transform the method Scale into FactoredScale, both of which perform floating point arithmetic:

    public double Scale(DoubleData state) {
        double value = 0D;
        double[] data = state.data1;
        for (int i = 0; i < data.length; ++i) {
            value += 3.14159 * data[i];
        return value;

    public double FactoredScale(DoubleData state) {
        double value = 0D;
        double[] data = state.data1;
        for (int i = 0; i < data.length; ++i) {
            value += data[i];
        return 3.14159 * value;

Running the project at github with the argument --include .*scale.*, there may be a performance gain to be had from this rewrite, but it isn’t clear cut:

Benchmark Mode Threads Samples Score Score Error (99.9%) Unit Param: size
FactoredScale thrpt 1 10 7.011606 0.274742 ops/ms 100000
FactoredScale thrpt 1 10 0.621515 0.026853 ops/ms 1000000
Scale thrpt 1 10 6.962434 0.240180 ops/ms 100000
Scale thrpt 1 10 0.671042 0.011686 ops/ms 1000000

With the real numbers it would be completely valid, but floating point arithmetic is not associative. Joseph Darcy explains why in this deep dive on floating point semantics. Broken associativity of addition entails broken distributivity of any operation over it, so the two loops are not equivalent, and they give different outputs (e.g. 15662.513298516365 vs 15662.51329851632 for one sample input). The rewrite isn’t correct even for floating point data, so it isn’t an optimisation that could be applied in good faith, except in a very small number of cases. You have to rewrite the loop yourself and figure out if the small but inevitable differences are acceptable.

Counterintuitive Performance

Integer multiplication is distributive over addition, and we can check if C2 does this rewrite by running the same code with 32 bit integer values, for now fixing a scale factor of 10 (which seems like an innocuous value, no?)

    public int Scale_Int(IntData state) {
        int value = 0;
        int[] data = state.data1;
        for (int i = 0; i < data.length; ++i) {
            value += 10 * data[i];
        return value;

    public int FactoredScale_Int(IntData state) {
        int value = 0;
        int[] data = state.data1;
        for (int i = 0; i < data.length; ++i) {
            value += data[i];
        return 10 * value;

The results are fascinating:

Benchmark Mode Threads Samples Score Score Error (99.9%) Unit Param: size
FactoredScale_Int thrpt 1 10 28.339699 0.608075 ops/ms 100000
FactoredScale_Int thrpt 1 10 2.392579 0.506413 ops/ms 1000000
Scale_Int thrpt 1 10 33.335721 0.295334 ops/ms 100000
Scale_Int thrpt 1 10 2.838242 0.448213 ops/ms 1000000

The code is doing thousands more multiplications in less time when the multiplication is not factored out of the loop. So what the devil is going on? Inspecting the assembly for the faster loop is revealing

  0x000001c89e499400: vmovdqu ymm8,ymmword ptr [rbp+r13*4+10h]
  0x000001c89e499407: movsxd  r10,r13d       
  0x000001c89e49940a: vmovdqu ymm9,ymmword ptr [rbp+r10*4+30h]
  0x000001c89e499411: vmovdqu ymm13,ymmword ptr [rbp+r10*4+0f0h]
  0x000001c89e49941b: vmovdqu ymm12,ymmword ptr [rbp+r10*4+50h]
  0x000001c89e499422: vmovdqu ymm4,ymmword ptr [rbp+r10*4+70h]
  0x000001c89e499429: vmovdqu ymm3,ymmword ptr [rbp+r10*4+90h]
  0x000001c89e499433: vmovdqu ymm2,ymmword ptr [rbp+r10*4+0b0h]
  0x000001c89e49943d: vmovdqu ymm0,ymmword ptr [rbp+r10*4+0d0h]
  0x000001c89e499447: vpslld  ymm11,ymm8,1h  
  0x000001c89e49944d: vpslld  ymm1,ymm0,1h   
  0x000001c89e499452: vpslld  ymm0,ymm0,3h   
  0x000001c89e499457: vpaddd  ymm5,ymm0,ymm1 
  0x000001c89e49945b: vpslld  ymm0,ymm2,3h   
  0x000001c89e499460: vpslld  ymm7,ymm3,3h   
  0x000001c89e499465: vpslld  ymm10,ymm4,3h 
  0x000001c89e49946a: vpslld  ymm15,ymm12,3h
  0x000001c89e499470: vpslld  ymm14,ymm13,3h
  0x000001c89e499476: vpslld  ymm1,ymm9,3h  
  0x000001c89e49947c: vpslld  ymm2,ymm2,1h  
  0x000001c89e499481: vpaddd  ymm6,ymm0,ymm2   
  0x000001c89e499485: vpslld  ymm0,ymm3,1h     
  0x000001c89e49948a: vpaddd  ymm7,ymm7,ymm0   
  0x000001c89e49948e: vpslld  ymm0,ymm4,1h     
  0x000001c89e499493: vpaddd  ymm10,ymm10,ymm0
  0x000001c89e499497: vpslld  ymm0,ymm12,1h   
  0x000001c89e49949d: vpaddd  ymm12,ymm15,ymm0
  0x000001c89e4994a1: vpslld  ymm0,ymm13,1h   
  0x000001c89e4994a7: vpaddd  ymm4,ymm14,ymm0 
  0x000001c89e4994ab: vpslld  ymm0,ymm9,1h    
  0x000001c89e4994b1: vpaddd  ymm2,ymm1,ymm0  
  0x000001c89e4994b5: vpslld  ymm0,ymm8,3h    
  0x000001c89e4994bb: vpaddd  ymm8,ymm0,ymm11 
  0x000001c89e4994c0: vphaddd ymm0,ymm8,ymm8  
  0x000001c89e4994c5: vphaddd ymm0,ymm0,ymm3  
  0x000001c89e4994ca: vextracti128 xmm3,ymm0,1h
  0x000001c89e4994d0: vpaddd  xmm0,xmm0,xmm3   
  0x000001c89e4994d4: vmovd   xmm3,ebx         
  0x000001c89e4994d8: vpaddd  xmm3,xmm3,xmm0   
  0x000001c89e4994dc: vmovd   r10d,xmm3        
  0x000001c89e4994e1: vphaddd ymm0,ymm2,ymm2   
  0x000001c89e4994e6: vphaddd ymm0,ymm0,ymm3   
  0x000001c89e4994eb: vextracti128 xmm3,ymm0,1h
  0x000001c89e4994f1: vpaddd  xmm0,xmm0,xmm3   
  0x000001c89e4994f5: vmovd   xmm3,r10d        
  0x000001c89e4994fa: vpaddd  xmm3,xmm3,xmm0   
  0x000001c89e4994fe: vmovd   r11d,xmm3        
  0x000001c89e499503: vphaddd ymm2,ymm12,ymm12  
  0x000001c89e499508: vphaddd ymm2,ymm2,ymm0    
  0x000001c89e49950d: vextracti128 xmm0,ymm2,1h 
  0x000001c89e499513: vpaddd  xmm2,xmm2,xmm0    
  0x000001c89e499517: vmovd   xmm0,r11d         
  0x000001c89e49951c: vpaddd  xmm0,xmm0,xmm2    
  0x000001c89e499520: vmovd   r10d,xmm0         
  0x000001c89e499525: vphaddd ymm0,ymm10,ymm10  
  0x000001c89e49952a: vphaddd ymm0,ymm0,ymm3   
  0x000001c89e49952f: vextracti128 xmm3,ymm0,1h
  0x000001c89e499535: vpaddd  xmm0,xmm0,xmm3
  0x000001c89e499539: vmovd   xmm3,r10d   
  0x000001c89e49953e: vpaddd  xmm3,xmm3,xmm0   
  0x000001c89e499542: vmovd   r11d,xmm3        
  0x000001c89e499547: vphaddd ymm2,ymm7,ymm7   
  0x000001c89e49954c: vphaddd ymm2,ymm2,ymm0   
  0x000001c89e499551: vextracti128 xmm0,ymm2,1h
  0x000001c89e499557: vpaddd  xmm2,xmm2,xmm0 
  0x000001c89e49955b: vmovd   xmm0,r11d      
  0x000001c89e499560: vpaddd  xmm0,xmm0,xmm2 
  0x000001c89e499564: vmovd   r10d,xmm0      
  0x000001c89e499569: vphaddd ymm0,ymm6,ymm6   
  0x000001c89e49956e: vphaddd ymm0,ymm0,ymm3   
  0x000001c89e499573: vextracti128 xmm3,ymm0,1h
  0x000001c89e499579: vpaddd  xmm0,xmm0,xmm3   
  0x000001c89e49957d: vmovd   xmm3,r10d        
  0x000001c89e499582: vpaddd  xmm3,xmm3,xmm0   
  0x000001c89e499586: vmovd   r11d,xmm3        
  0x000001c89e49958b: vphaddd ymm2,ymm5,ymm5   
  0x000001c89e499590: vphaddd ymm2,ymm2,ymm0   
  0x000001c89e499595: vextracti128 xmm0,ymm2,1h
  0x000001c89e49959b: vpaddd  xmm2,xmm2,xmm0
  0x000001c89e49959f: vmovd   xmm0,r11d     
  0x000001c89e4995a4: vpaddd  xmm0,xmm0,xmm2
  0x000001c89e4995a8: vmovd   r10d,xmm0
  0x000001c89e4995ad: vphaddd ymm2,ymm4,ymm4 
  0x000001c89e4995b2: vphaddd ymm2,ymm2,ymm1
  0x000001c89e4995b7: vextracti128 xmm1,ymm2,1h
  0x000001c89e4995bd: vpaddd  xmm2,xmm2,xmm1
  0x000001c89e4995c1: vmovd   xmm1,r10d  
  0x000001c89e4995c6: vpaddd  xmm1,xmm1,xmm2    
  0x000001c89e4995ca: vmovd   ebx,xmm1          

The loop is aggressively unrolled, pipelined, and vectorised. Moreover, the multiplication by ten results not in a multiplication but two left shifts (see VPSLLD) and an addition. Note that x << 1 + x << 3 = x * 10 and C2 seems to know it; this rewrite can be applied because it can be proven statically that the factor is always 10. The “optimised” loop doesn’t vectorise at all (and I have no idea why not – isn’t this a bug? Yes it is.)

  0x000002bbebeda3c8: add     ebx,dword ptr [rbp+r8*4+14h]
  0x000002bbebeda3cd: add     ebx,dword ptr [rbp+r8*4+18h]
  0x000002bbebeda3d2: add     ebx,dword ptr [rbp+r8*4+1ch]
  0x000002bbebeda3d7: add     ebx,dword ptr [rbp+r8*4+20h]
  0x000002bbebeda3dc: add     ebx,dword ptr [rbp+r8*4+24h]
  0x000002bbebeda3e1: add     ebx,dword ptr [rbp+r8*4+28h]
  0x000002bbebeda3e6: add     ebx,dword ptr [rbp+r8*4+2ch]
  0x000002bbebeda3eb: add     r13d,8h           
  0x000002bbebeda3ef: cmp     r13d,r11d         
  0x000002bbebeda3f2: jl      2bbebeda3c0h      

This is a special case: data is usually dynamic and variable, so the loop cannot always be proven to be equivalent to a linear combination of bit shifts. The routine is compiled for all possible parameters, not just statically contrived cases like the one above, so you may never see this assembly in the wild. However, even with random factors, the slow looking loop is aggressively optimised in a way the hand “optimised” code is not:

    public int Scale_Int_Dynamic(ScaleState state) {
        int value = 0;
        int[] data =;
        int factor = state.randomFactor();
        for (int i = 0; i < data.length; ++i) {
            value += factor * data[i];
        return value;

    public int FactoredScale_Int_Dynamic(ScaleState state) {
        int value = 0;
        int[] data =;
        int factor = state.randomFactor();
        for (int i = 0; i < data.length; ++i) {
            value += data[i];
        return factor * value;

Benchmark Mode Threads Samples Score Score Error (99.9%) Unit Param: size
FactoredScale_Int_Dynamic thrpt 1 10 26.100439 0.340069 ops/ms 100000
FactoredScale_Int_Dynamic thrpt 1 10 1.918011 0.297925 ops/ms 1000000
Scale_Int_Dynamic thrpt 1 10 30.219809 2.977389 ops/ms 100000
Scale_Int_Dynamic thrpt 1 10 2.314159 0.378442 ops/ms 1000000

Far from seeking to exploit distributivity to reduce the number of multiplication instructions, it seems to almost embrace the extraneous operations as metadata to drive optimisations. The assembly for Scale_Int_Dynamic confirms this (it shows vectorised multiplication, not shifts, within the loop):

  0x000001f5ca2fa200: vmovdqu ymm0,ymmword ptr [r13+r14*4+10h]
  0x000001f5ca2fa207: vpmulld ymm11,ymm0,ymm2   
  0x000001f5ca2fa20c: movsxd  r10,r14d          
  0x000001f5ca2fa20f: vmovdqu ymm0,ymmword ptr [r13+r10*4+30h]
  0x000001f5ca2fa216: vmovdqu ymm1,ymmword ptr [r13+r10*4+0f0h]
  0x000001f5ca2fa220: vmovdqu ymm3,ymmword ptr [r13+r10*4+50h]
  0x000001f5ca2fa227: vmovdqu ymm7,ymmword ptr [r13+r10*4+70h]
  0x000001f5ca2fa22e: vmovdqu ymm6,ymmword ptr [r13+r10*4+90h]
  0x000001f5ca2fa238: vmovdqu ymm5,ymmword ptr [r13+r10*4+0b0h]
  0x000001f5ca2fa242: vmovdqu ymm4,ymmword ptr [r13+r10*4+0d0h]
  0x000001f5ca2fa24c: vpmulld ymm9,ymm0,ymm2    
  0x000001f5ca2fa251: vpmulld ymm4,ymm4,ymm2    
  0x000001f5ca2fa256: vpmulld ymm5,ymm5,ymm2    
  0x000001f5ca2fa25b: vpmulld ymm6,ymm6,ymm2    
  0x000001f5ca2fa260: vpmulld ymm8,ymm7,ymm2    
  0x000001f5ca2fa265: vpmulld ymm10,ymm3,ymm2   
  0x000001f5ca2fa26a: vpmulld ymm3,ymm1,ymm2    
  0x000001f5ca2fa26f: vphaddd ymm1,ymm11,ymm11  
  0x000001f5ca2fa274: vphaddd ymm1,ymm1,ymm0    
  0x000001f5ca2fa279: vextracti128 xmm0,ymm1,1h 
  0x000001f5ca2fa27f: vpaddd  xmm1,xmm1,xmm0    
  0x000001f5ca2fa283: vmovd   xmm0,ebx          
  0x000001f5ca2fa287: vpaddd  xmm0,xmm0,xmm1    
  0x000001f5ca2fa28b: vmovd   r10d,xmm0         
  0x000001f5ca2fa290: vphaddd ymm1,ymm9,ymm9    
  0x000001f5ca2fa295: vphaddd ymm1,ymm1,ymm0    
  0x000001f5ca2fa29a: vextracti128 xmm0,ymm1,1h 
  0x000001f5ca2fa2a0: vpaddd  xmm1,xmm1,xmm0    
  0x000001f5ca2fa2a4: vmovd   xmm0,r10d         
  0x000001f5ca2fa2a9: vpaddd  xmm0,xmm0,xmm1    
  0x000001f5ca2fa2ad: vmovd   r11d,xmm0         
  0x000001f5ca2fa2b2: vphaddd ymm0,ymm10,ymm10  
  0x000001f5ca2fa2b7: vphaddd ymm0,ymm0,ymm1    
  0x000001f5ca2fa2bc: vextracti128 xmm1,ymm0,1h 
  0x000001f5ca2fa2c2: vpaddd  xmm0,xmm0,xmm1    
  0x000001f5ca2fa2c6: vmovd   xmm1,r11d         
  0x000001f5ca2fa2cb: vpaddd  xmm1,xmm1,xmm0    
  0x000001f5ca2fa2cf: vmovd   r10d,xmm1         
  0x000001f5ca2fa2d4: vphaddd ymm1,ymm8,ymm8    
  0x000001f5ca2fa2d9: vphaddd ymm1,ymm1,ymm0    
  0x000001f5ca2fa2de: vextracti128 xmm0,ymm1,1h 
  0x000001f5ca2fa2e4: vpaddd  xmm1,xmm1,xmm0    
  0x000001f5ca2fa2e8: vmovd   xmm0,r10d         
  0x000001f5ca2fa2ed: vpaddd  xmm0,xmm0,xmm1    
  0x000001f5ca2fa2f1: vmovd   r11d,xmm0         
  0x000001f5ca2fa2f6: vphaddd ymm0,ymm6,ymm6    
  0x000001f5ca2fa2fb: vphaddd ymm0,ymm0,ymm1    
  0x000001f5ca2fa300: vextracti128 xmm1,ymm0,1h 
  0x000001f5ca2fa306: vpaddd  xmm0,xmm0,xmm1    
  0x000001f5ca2fa30a: vmovd   xmm1,r11d         
  0x000001f5ca2fa30f: vpaddd  xmm1,xmm1,xmm0    
  0x000001f5ca2fa313: vmovd   r10d,xmm1         
  0x000001f5ca2fa318: vphaddd ymm1,ymm5,ymm5    
  0x000001f5ca2fa31d: vphaddd ymm1,ymm1,ymm0    
  0x000001f5ca2fa322: vextracti128 xmm0,ymm1,1h 
  0x000001f5ca2fa328: vpaddd  xmm1,xmm1,xmm0    
  0x000001f5ca2fa32c: vmovd   xmm0,r10d         
  0x000001f5ca2fa331: vpaddd  xmm0,xmm0,xmm1    
  0x000001f5ca2fa335: vmovd   r11d,xmm0         
  0x000001f5ca2fa33a: vphaddd ymm0,ymm4,ymm4    
  0x000001f5ca2fa33f: vphaddd ymm0,ymm0,ymm1    
  0x000001f5ca2fa344: vextracti128 xmm1,ymm0,1h 
  0x000001f5ca2fa34a: vpaddd  xmm0,xmm0,xmm1    
  0x000001f5ca2fa34e: vmovd   xmm1,r11d         
  0x000001f5ca2fa353: vpaddd  xmm1,xmm1,xmm0    
  0x000001f5ca2fa357: vmovd   r10d,xmm1         
  0x000001f5ca2fa35c: vphaddd ymm1,ymm3,ymm3    
  0x000001f5ca2fa361: vphaddd ymm1,ymm1,ymm7    
  0x000001f5ca2fa366: vextracti128 xmm7,ymm1,1h 
  0x000001f5ca2fa36c: vpaddd  xmm1,xmm1,xmm7   
  0x000001f5ca2fa370: vmovd   xmm7,r10d        
  0x000001f5ca2fa375: vpaddd  xmm7,xmm7,xmm1   
  0x000001f5ca2fa379: vmovd   ebx,xmm7         

There are two lessons to be learnt here. The first is that what you see is not what you get. The second is about the correctness of asymptotic analysis. If hierarchical cache renders asymptotic analysis bullshit (linear time but cache friendly algorithms can, and do, outperform logarithmic algorithms with cache misses), optimising compilers render the field practically irrelevant.

Zeroing Negative Values in Arrays Efficiently

Replacing negatives with zeroes in large arrays of values is a primitive function of several complex financial risk measures, including potential future exposure (PFE) and the liquidity coverage ratio (LCR). While this is not an interesting operation by any stretch of the imagination, it is useful and there is significant benefit in its performance. This is an operation that can be computed very efficiently using the instruction VMAXPD. For Intel Xeon processors, this instruction requires half a cycle to calculate and has a latency (how long before another instruction can use its result) of four cycles. There is currently no way to trick Java into using this instruction for this simple operation, though there is a placeholder implementation on the current DoubleVector prototype in Project Panama which may do so.

C++ Intel Intrinsics

It’s possible to target instructions from different processor vendors, in my case Intel, by using intrinsic functions which expose instructions as high level functions. The code looks incredibly ugly but it works. Here is a C++ function for 256 bit ymm registers:

void zero_negatives(const double* source, double* target, const size_t length) {
  for (size_t i = 0; i + 3 < length; i += 4) {
    __m256d vector = _mm256_load_pd(source + i);
    __m256d zeroed = _mm256_max_pd(vector, _mm256_setzero_pd());
    _mm256_storeu_pd(target + i, zeroed);

The function loads doubles into 256 bit vectors, within each vector replaces the negative values with zero, and writes them back into an array. It generates the following assembly code (which, incidentally, is less of a shit show to access than in Java):

void zero_negatives(const double* source, double* target, const size_t length) {
00007FF746EE5110  mov         qword ptr [rsp+18h],r8  
00007FF746EE5115  mov         qword ptr [rsp+10h],rdx  
00007FF746EE511A  mov         qword ptr [rsp+8],rcx  
00007FF746EE511F  push        r13  
00007FF746EE5121  push        rbp  
00007FF746EE5122  push        rdi  
00007FF746EE5123  sub         rsp,250h  
00007FF746EE512A  mov         r13,rsp  
00007FF746EE512D  lea         rbp,[rsp+20h]  
00007FF746EE5132  and         rbp,0FFFFFFFFFFFFFFE0h  
00007FF746EE5136  mov         rdi,rsp  
00007FF746EE5139  mov         ecx,94h  
00007FF746EE513E  mov         eax,0CCCCCCCCh  
00007FF746EE5143  rep stos    dword ptr [rdi]  
00007FF746EE5145  mov         rcx,qword ptr [rsp+278h]  
  for (size_t i = 0; i + 3 < length; i += 4) {
00007FF746EE514D  mov         qword ptr [rbp+8],0  
00007FF746EE5155  jmp         zero_negatives+53h (07FF746EE5163h)  
00007FF746EE5157  mov         rax,qword ptr [rbp+8]  
00007FF746EE515B  add         rax,4  
00007FF746EE515F  mov         qword ptr [rbp+8],rax  
00007FF746EE5163  mov         rax,qword ptr [rbp+8]  
00007FF746EE5167  add         rax,3  
00007FF746EE516B  cmp         rax,qword ptr [length]  
00007FF746EE5172  jae         zero_negatives+0DDh (07FF746EE51EDh)  
    __m256d vector = _mm256_load_pd(source + i);
00007FF746EE5174  mov         rax,qword ptr [source]  
00007FF746EE517B  mov         rcx,qword ptr [rbp+8]  
00007FF746EE517F  lea         rax,[rax+rcx*8]  
00007FF746EE5183  vmovupd     ymm0,ymmword ptr [rax]  
00007FF746EE5187  vmovupd     ymmword ptr [rbp+180h],ymm0  
00007FF746EE518F  vmovupd     ymm0,ymmword ptr [rbp+180h]  
00007FF746EE5197  vmovupd     ymmword ptr [rbp+40h],ymm0  
    __m256d zeroed = _mm256_max_pd(vector, _mm256_setzero_pd());
00007FF746EE519C  vxorpd      xmm0,xmm0,xmm0  
00007FF746EE51A0  vmovupd     ymmword ptr [rbp+200h],ymm0  
00007FF746EE51A8  vmovupd     ymm0,ymmword ptr [rbp+40h]  
00007FF746EE51AD  vmaxpd      ymm0,ymm0,ymmword ptr [rbp+200h]  
00007FF746EE51B5  vmovupd     ymmword ptr [rbp+1C0h],ymm0  
00007FF746EE51BD  vmovupd     ymm0,ymmword ptr [rbp+1C0h]  
00007FF746EE51C5  vmovupd     ymmword ptr [rbp+80h],ymm0  
    _mm256_storeu_pd(target + i, zeroed);
00007FF746EE51CD  mov         rax,qword ptr [target]  
00007FF746EE51D4  mov         rcx,qword ptr [rbp+8]  
00007FF746EE51D8  lea         rax,[rax+rcx*8]  
00007FF746EE51DC  vmovupd     ymm0,ymmword ptr [rbp+80h]  
00007FF746EE51E4  vmovupd     ymmword ptr [rax],ymm0  
00007FF746EE51E8  jmp         zero_negatives+47h (07FF746EE5157h)  
00007FF746EE51ED  lea         rsp,[r13+250h]  
00007FF746EE51F4  pop         rdi  
00007FF746EE51F5  pop         rbp  
00007FF746EE51F6  pop         r13  
00007FF746EE51F8  ret    

This code is noticeably fast. I measured the throughput averaged over 1000 iterations, with an array of 10 million doubles (800MB) uniformly distributed between +/- 1E7, to quantify the throughput in GB/s and iterations/s. This code does between 4.5 and 5 iterations per second, which translates to processing approximately 4GB/s. This seems high, and since I am unaware of best practices in C++, if the measurement is flawed, I would gratefully be educated in the comments.

void benchmark() {
  const size_t length = 1E8;
  double* values = new double[length];
  fill_array(values, length);
  double* zeroed = new double[length];
  auto start = std::chrono::high_resolution_clock::now();
  int iterations = 1000;
  for (int i = 0; i < iterations; ++i) {
    zero_negatives(values, zeroed, length);
  auto end = std::chrono::high_resolution_clock::now();
  auto nanos = std::chrono::duration_cast<std::chrono::nanoseconds>(end - start).count();
  double thrpt_s = (iterations * 1E9) / nanos;
  double thrpt_gbps = (thrpt_s * sizeof(double) * length) / 1E9;
  std::cout << thrpt_s << "/s" << std::endl;
  std::cout << thrpt_gbps << "GB/s" << std::endl;
  delete[] values;
  delete[] zeroed;

While I am sure there are various ways an expert could tweak this for performance, this code can’t get much faster unless there are 512 bit zmm registers available, in which case it would be wasteful. While the code looks virtually the same for AVX512 (just replace “256” with “512”), portability and efficiency are at odds. Handling the mess of detecting the best instruction set for the deployed architecture is the main reason for using Java in performance sensitive (but not critical) applications. But this is not the code the JVM generates.

Java Auto-Vectorisation (Play Your Cards Right)

There is currently no abstraction modelling vectorisation in Java. The only access available is if the compiler engineers implement an intrinsic, or auto-vectorisation, which will try, and sometimes succeed admirably, to translate your code to a good vector implementation. There is currently a prototype project for explicit vectorisation in Project Panama. There are a few ways to skin this cat, and it’s worth looking at the code they generate and the throughput available from each approach.

There is a choice between copying the array and zeroing out the negatives, and allocating a new array and only writing the non-negative values. There is another choice between an if statement and branchless code using Math.max. This results in the following four implementations which I measure on comparable data to the C++ benchmark (10 million doubles, normally distributed with mean zero). To be fair to the Java code, as in the C++ benchmarks, the cost of allocation is isolated by writing into an array pre-allocated once per benchmark. This penalises the approaches where the array is copied first and then zeroed wherever the value is negative. The code is online at github.

    public double[] BranchyCopyAndMask(ArrayWithNegatives state) {
        double[] data =;
        double[] result =;
        System.arraycopy(data, 0, result, 0, data.length);
        for (int i = 0; i < result.length; ++i) {
            if (result[i] < 0D) {
                result[i] = 0D;
        return result;

    public double[] BranchyNewArray(ArrayWithNegatives state) {
        double[] data =;
        double[] result =;
        for (int i = 0; i < result.length; ++i) {
            result[i] = data[i] < 0D ? 0D : data[i];
        return result;

    public double[] NewArray(ArrayWithNegatives state) {
        double[] data =;
        double[] result =;
        for (int i = 0; i < result.length; ++i) {
            result[i] = Math.max(data[i], 0D);
        return result;

    public double[] CopyAndMask(ArrayWithNegatives state) {
        double[] data =;
        double[] result =;
        System.arraycopy(data, 0, result, 0, data.length);
        for (int i = 0; i < result.length; ++i) {
            result[i] = Math.max(result[i], 0D);
        return result;

None of these implementations comes close to the native code above. The best implementation performs 1.8 iterations per second which equates to processing approximately 1.4GB/s, vastly inferior to the 4GB/s achieved with Intel intrinsics. The results are below:

Benchmark Mode Threads Samples Score Score Error (99.9%) Unit
BranchyCopyAndMask thrpt 1 10 1.314845 0.061662 ops/s
BranchyNewArray thrpt 1 10 1.802673 0.061835 ops/s
CopyAndMask thrpt 1 10 1.146630 0.018903 ops/s
NewArray thrpt 1 10 1.357020 0.116481 ops/s

As an aside, there is a very interesting observation to make, worthy of its own post: if the array consists only of positive values, the “branchy” implementations run very well, at speeds comparable to the zero_negatives (when it ran with 50% negatives). The ratio of branch hits to misses is an orthogonal explanatory variable, and the input data, while I often don’t think about it enough, is very important.

I only looked at the assembly emitted for the fastest version (BranchyNewArray) and it doesn’t look anything like zero_negatives, though it does use some vectorisation – as pointed out by Daniel Lemire in the comments, this code has probably not been vectorised and is probably using SSE2 (indeed only quad words are loaded into 128 bit registers):

  0x000002ae309c3d5c: vmovsd  xmm0,qword ptr [rdx+rax*8+10h]
  0x000002ae309c3d62: vxorpd  xmm1,xmm1,xmm1    
  0x000002ae309c3d66: vucomisd xmm0,xmm1        

I don’t really understand, and haven’t thought about, the intent of the emitted code, but it makes extensive use of the instruction VUCOMISD for comparisons with zero, which has a lower latency but lower throughput than VMAXPD. It would certainly be interesting to see how Project Panama does this. Perhaps this should just be made available as a fail-safe intrinsic like Arrays.mismatch?